Tuesday, June 28, 2011

JONES "Coat(s) of Arms" [Part I]

There are those who want to sell a JONES "Coat of Arms". This implies that there is only one JONES family, with a common male ancestor. This has been shown not to be the case. [See post: "Phonetic not Genetic", June 6, 2011, and "Genetic Bowel of Spaghetti", June 10, 2011. Also under blog http://jonessurnamedna.blogspot.com, posts : "The Jones Surname: Not genetic but Phonetic", June 18, 2011, and "Multiple Roots", June 22, 2011.] Thus, there can not be a single JONES "Coat of Arms" for the JONES surname. There are multiple coat of arms under families that carry the JONES surname, but more often than not, they are not related genetically.

As early as 1840, there were at least 123 JONES coat of arms! These are analyzed by the primary symbol (charge) shown in the figure to the right. The lion represented 45% of the symbols placed upon the shields. The "lion rampant" was 34%. The cross/pheons (spear heads) was second with 13%. Swords, arrows, and spear heads were third at about 9%. A breakdown of these symbols are shown in the flow chart, with birds, boar's heads, Nag's (horses), Stag's heads, Wolfe's heads, and Bull's heads being found. This shows multiple symbols, for multiple JONES families. Unless you can discover which JONES family you are related, then you will not know which "coat of arms" belongs to your Y-chromosome.

This figure was taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VIII, No. 5, July/August, 1996, p.5.

Friday, June 24, 2011

English Orders of Chivalry and The Jones Surname

In 1906, William Shaw published a book listing a complete record of all the "Orders of Chivalry in England". It is titled: "Complete Record from the Earliest Time to the Present Day of the Knights of all the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of Knights Bachelors".

The following tables present the abstract of this reference for the surname JONES. It begins with the reign of Edward III. The first JONES [spelled Johanes], appears 1542. This would be just after the completion of the Act of Union.

The names are arranged in chronological order from the first JONES ,1542, to the last in 1901.

Thomas Johanes, Kt. is the first. He is followed by Henry Joanes, Kt. in 1553. It is not until 1584 that the spelling is given as JONES. Hereafter, the spelling is JONES. Only six individuals are listed under the surname from 1542- 1591.

Elias Jones, Kt. starts the 1600s, with 12 individuals recorded.
Some information is given, such as Roger Jones, Kt. of Sligo; in Ireland, by viscount Falkland. Only one individual, Henry Jones, Kt., is identified during the Commonwealth period under Cromwell. [1658]

For the 1700s, there were only four individuals, with Thomas Jones, Kt. leading the way. [I suspect that most of the JONES had already left the Island.]

Twenty two individuals were knighted during the 1800s. It seems the 1830s were a good decade.

Alfred L. Jones, K.C.M.G., begins the 1900s, but the book was published in 1906, thus leaving Alfred as the only JONES to this date.

The orders of knighthood was initiated by the eldest son of Edward III, widely known as "The Black Prince", 1336. This again suggest that the surname JONES did not appear in these
order books until after The Act of Union, 1536.

The various abbreviations are as follows:

Order of the Garter, dates from 1348 - Kt.

Order of the Thistle, dates from 1539 - Kt.

Order of Bath, dates from 1725 - K.C.B. or G.C.B.

The Guelphic Order, dates from 1815 - K.H.

Order of St.Michael and St. George, dates from 1814 - K.C.M.G.

The tables are taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VI, No.3, Sept/Oct, 1994, pp. 1-3. The information is abstracted from "The Knights of England", Vol.I, and Vol. II, by W.A. Shaw, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1971. Remember, you can click on the tables to enlarge them.

Sunday, June 19, 2011

Jones Surname to Virginia 1635 - 1656

The early settlement of Virginia was a very difficult and costly experiment for those willing to come to a new land. There was a high death rate and very primitive living conditions. The motivation for coming to such a place under such circumstances must have been strong.

Following the Indian uprising of 1622, an investigation in England was made into the London Company and its ability to manage the Virginia settlements. Interestingly, this investigation was headed by Sir William Jones, Lord Mayor of London.

The charter of the London Company was annulled and Virginia became a royal colony. This action meant that the company lost control of lands and peoples. This also meant that the new settlements would come under the protection of the Crown which would help stabilize and organize the colony. Royal officials provided a count of the colonist in the Muster list of 1624/25. This "muster" list recorded 1218 individuals, 934 males and 270 females. Seventy-six percent were below the age of 30 years and 89% were born in Britain or Europe.

By 1630, the population had doubled within the 27 distinct settlements. This marked increase lead the colony to develop the county system. In 1634, a Virginia assembly divided the settlements into eight divisions or counties. These counties and their populations were as follows: 1) Henrico - pop. 419, 2) Charles City - pop. 511, 3) James City - pop. 886, 4) Warwick - pop. 811, 5) Warrasqueoc (Isle of Wight) - pop. 522, 6) Elizabeth City - pop. 854, 7) Charles River (Yorke) - pop. 510, and 8) Accomack (Northampton) - pop. 396. These early counties provided governmental functions and local magistrates or "justices of the peace". These counties also provided the records and accounts of the early settlers for each area. A total of 216 Joneses immigrated to Virginia during the period 1635 - 1656. The figure above shows the pattern of this Jones Surname immigration. It clearly shows that the Jones' immigration was impacted by the civil war in England. A second wave of immigration begins after the Commonwealth is established in England.

Data abstracted from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. 1, No.3, Sept./Oct., 1989, pp.1-3.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Jones Surname by English Monarch 1485-1714

Over time, the Jones surname made its appearance in the English legal records. Gradually at first, then expanding rapidly after the Act of Union under Henry VIII. [See post: Impact, The Act of Union 1536, Feb. 24, 2011.] The table to the right shows the average number of Jones surnames that occurred in the English legal records per years for each English Monarch between 1485 and 1714.

Henry VII who brought the Welsh to the English side of things [His Tudor lineage] show that less than one Jones per year (.71) shows up during his 24 year reign. His son, Henry VIII, who produced the Act of Union, showed roughly two (2.01) Jones surnames appearing each year of his reign. The Jones surname increased under Edward VI (3.67) and nearly doubled under Mary I (6.40). [I suspect this had to do with the fact that many of the Jones were Catholic.] Finally, the last Tudor had the highest ratio of Jones surnames at more than 9 (9.07) per year. Her long rule and, more or less stable reign, produced a lot of Jones surnames.

The Stuarts cut in half the number of Jones surnames [9.07 to 4.05] when the Welsh influence was replaced by the Scots. This was reduced again under his son Charles I to 2.17 Jones per year.

The Commonwealth years [1649-1660] remained about the same with 2.91 Jones per years showing by this time that there was a balance between the warring political and religious factions.

The return of the Stuarts in 1660 showed a marked increase in the number of Jones surnames per year going from 2.91 to 6.04. This must mean that a bunch of Jones had to fight for their rights in this period of time. [Remember that these data are from the legal (court) records of the time.] James II drops the Jones surname almost in half, to 3.33 surnames per year.

When the Protestants finally take over, there is a marked increase in the Jones surname to 8.61 per years. This again most likely reflects the fact that many Jones families faced a legal quagmire during this period. By Queen Anne's time this seems to have settled a bit, with 4.67 Jones surnames appearing.

Wow, what a legal history. The Welsh fighting the English in the courts of the day.

Friday, June 10, 2011

Genetic Bowel of Spaghetti

A basic assumption doing genealogy is that your family has a common root. There is an "Adam" from which the family grew. From this ancestor "Adam" the generations begin, and the family tree grows generation after generation. This implies that if you share a common surname, then you are descended from this "Adam". Readjusting ones thinking is necessary when dealing with Welsh surname such as JONES.

An act under Henry VIII entitled; "An act for laws and justice to be ministered in Wales in like form as it is in this realm." St. 27 Hen. VIII, c. 26 1535" (Stat. Realm, III. 563) states:

"...and that all and singular person and persons, born or to be born in the said principality country or dominion of Wales shall have enjoy and inherit all and singular freedoms liberties and rights privileges and laws within this his realm, and other the king's dominions, as other the king's subjects naturally born within the same have, enjoy and inherit."

It also goes own to state that the courts were to be held in English. Furthermore, it declares,

"...also that from henceforth no person or persons that use the Welsh speech or language shall have or enjoy any manner office or fees within this realm of England, Wales, or other the King's dominions upon pain of forfeiting the same offices or fees unless he or they use and exercise the English speech or language."

This in effect outlawed the Welsh language in the legal system of England. Thus it was during this period of history that the Welsh were required to use English surnames.

The table above gives an example of how a Welsh family might produce several different surnames, but share a common grandfather. For example, if Thomas was the grandfather [before the Act of Union], and had four sons, Richard, Edward, John, and David. When these four sons had their own family [after the Act of Union] , they would be required to used English in the realm's courts. Thus when their children , Peter, David, Thomas, and John had to use English, they would give their name Peter ap Richard, David ap Edward, Thomas ap John, and John ap David. The English clerks would then write down, Peter Richards, David Edwards, Thomas Jones, and John David. Four different surnames, but all "1st cousins".

After a generation or two, the surnames Richards, Edward, Jones and David would seem to be of different stock. But alas , they would be genetically related whereas others given the JONES surname would not! So, many of the Welsh surnames that were produced during this "Act of Union" produced a genetic bowel of spaghetti . Bon appetit!

The reference for the Act of Union is found in: "English Historical Documents, edited b C.H. Williams, Oxford University Press, NY, 1967.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Phonetic not Genetic

Derivation of the Jones surname is shown in the figure to the right. The derivation is "phonetic", not "genetic". This is the reason that there are so many Jones in the English speaking world that carrying the surname, but they are not genetically related! It is a cohort effect that occurred during a transition period of Welsh-English history. The Tudors, of Welsh descent, annexed Wales into the English legal system by English law, Act of Union, 1536. [See post "Impact, The Act of Union 1536", Feb. 24, 2011.] This forced those of Welsh descent who had a father with the given name "John" to take its phonetic sound, written in the Anglo-Saxon "Iohannes", as a surname. [see posts: "The Domesday Book and John", Feb. 28, 2011; "1st To Record" , March 16, 2011; "Early English Records and the Jones Surname", March 24, 2001; "The First JONES Surname in English Records", March 28, 2011; "Ancient Petitions A Transition Period", April 16, 2011; "Welsh Names in English Records 1301 AD", April 23, 2011; "Norman Names", April 30, 2011; "Saxon Name Calling", May 4, 2011; "Dane Lands", May 8, 2011; "Welsh Birth Names 1301 AD", May 12, 2011; "Jones Surname 1273 - 1500 in England and Wales", May 17, 2011; "Jones Surname in Wales after 1500 AD", May 21, 2001; and "Jones Surname in England and Wales 1500 - 1700 AD", June 2, 2011.] During this transition period there were a variety of spellings including Ievan, Jevan, Johns, Joynes, and many others. [More will be said about this in a future post.]

Anglo-Saxon (Old English) to modern English...phonetic not genetic. This means that most who share the surname JONES are not related by Y-chromosome.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

Jones Surname In England and Wales 1500-1700

The Jones surname in England and Wales as it appears in the legal records analyzed between 1500 - 1700 A.D. is shown to the right. Each county has the total number of Jones surnames that were recorded written within. For the roughly 200 year period only five English counties failed to record a Jones surname. These counties were Durham, Derby, Nottingham, Rutland, and Isle of Wight. [Channel Islands and Isle of Man also had zero.] Middlesex had the largest number with 167. This number includes London which of course would have the most active "legal" arena. Monmouth appears second in number at 77, and Salop third 41. These counties being border counties to Wales.

The counties in Wales are also shown, but these counties were present in the last post.

The table below list each county by dates. One can follow the occurrence of the Jones surname 1544 - 1553 in chronological sequence, depending upon how these records were accounted. The records were recorded in "bundles" under the Monarch/s that reigned.[These dates are after the Act of Union, under Henry VIII, 1536.] The most active legal period being 1558-1579. After 1650, the Jones surname appears to increase dramatically from 42, to 93, to 110. A total of 564 Jones surnames by 1700.

The data set is from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VI, No.4, Nov/Dec 1994, pp. 2-4. They come from the analysis of the index "Court of Request Proceedings" representing the period 1485 - 1603. The supplementary series beginning James I and at restoration Charles II in 1660 are also included. A detailed reference list is available to those who would seek this documentation. Lists and Indexes published by Kraus Reprint Corporation, NY.