Saturday, April 30, 2011

Norman Names

When meeting someone for the first time, it is common to ask "where are you from?". In Kentucky, if you are not from Louisville or Lexington, you reply by stating stating "I'm from 'such and such county'." I am from Clark County or, I am from Boyle County. The Normans took this to the extreme by including the place they were from into their very name. They used a French term "de" which literally is a preposition meaning "of". In context this would mean "from". Thus Saber de Aldham would be staying, I am Saber from Aldham, by just giving his name.

In the Patent Rolls of Henry III, A.D. 1216-1225, there is an index which list the recorded name of the folks involved in these accounts of Norman history. The most common form of Norman name follows this structure: (name) followed by (de) followed by (location). Examples are William de Abbrineis, Ralph de Aeneurt, and Robert de Dunewich. Now when a son of the first Norman was given, it would be listed as Robert son of Robert de Dunewich. This type of recording was necessary to distinguish between the two Roberts.

In these Norman records, it was also common to list an individual by using the French "de le" or "de la". [le being masculine, and la being feminine gender] The French meaning "of the" where the article "le/la" matches the gender of the word it precedes. Thus John de la Barre, and Roger de la Barre would mean John of the Barre.

At times there would be a listing like today's names, such as Fremin Bekin, Michael Belet, and Reginald Cabus. This name type would often be following by series of descriptors such as, " W. Cadel, master of the Templars this side the mountains".

In some cases, all types would be combined such as "Master Geoffrey de Calete, envoy to the Pope". In this case, a qualifier (master) was followed by (name), followed by (of), followed by (location).

It was at this time that the term "fitz" was also used. A listing such as "Henry son of Reginald Fitz-Count" This term means "son of" but appears to be an application of the Anglo-Saxon "fetys" meaning "well-made". [Perhaps a tongue in cheek or a statement of respect.] Thus, the name would mean, Henry son of Reginald son of "well-made" Count.

Well there you have it. The Normans wanted you to know where they were from. As indicated in the previous post, the Welsh wanted you to know who their father was. Where are you from? Who is your father? Much like today.

The reference analyzed is "Patent Rolls", Henry III, A.D. 1216-1225. Public Record Office, London.

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Welsh Names in English Records 1301 AD

In Wales, Edward I was here to stay. His legal representatives spread out about the new counties he had created in Wales, making this new occupation a problem for many Welshmen. Thus, the Welsh and their names became part of this new legal system recorded by those who kept the records.

In 1301, a number of these Welshmen were ordered to appear for trial regarding their "outlawry" for "a plea of trespass of Roger de Mortuo Mari". [Roger Mortimer] They were to "surrender to Clifford goal" before Easter and "take their trial". [order was dated Jan. 28, Nettleham, Membrane 30, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 29 Edward I] This list consisted roughly of 355 names written in the language of the day. An analysis of these names follows. [Of course, the surname JONES does not appear.]

The Welsh names took the following form: a birth name [in some cases associated with a qualifier term], then the term "ap" [meaning son of], followed by the father's name [in some cases associated with a qualifier term]. Thus, (birth name) (qualifier) ap (father's name) (qualifier). Fifty six percent of the 355 names [197] took this form. The Welsh name was extended to three generation in 19% [68/355], and to four generations in only 6% [6/355]. The Welsh name was recorded 13 times (4%) as a series of names without an "ap" appearing, i.e., "Vernack Ivor Vonal". In summary the names were recorded by the English in their particular form as follows:

1) Griffith ap Res [recorded 45% - 161/355]

2) Yevan Gogh [recorded 19 % - 68/355] (Gogh = Coch = red) thus John the redheaded

3) Yevan ap Howel ap Kenn [recorded 18% - 63/355]

4) William ap Yevan Lippa [recorded 6% - 20/355]

5) Goch Lewelyn ap Yevan Gogh [recorded 5% - 16/355]

6) Howel ap Traharn ap Res ap Griffith [recorded 1% - 6/355]

7) Lewelyn Wagham ap Lewelyn ap Seisil [recorded 2% - 8/355]

8) Vernacak Ivor Vonal [recorded 4% - 13/355]!

Remember, the percents represent the form of the name, not the particular name used as the example. An analysis of the birth names will be given. Much more to come.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Ancient Petitions A Transition Period

The records of the English nation expanded greatly after Edward I. English vernacular was the common speech, but the language of the realm was French. [William I brought this language with him, and it became the signal of prestige for this new society and culture.] Latin remained the principle language of religion and learning. When King John lost control of the Norman's French territories, the statues of French went south, and by Henry III, English words in Latin case were the norm for Norman courts of the day. Edward I brought this French-Latin-English [actually old English, Anglo-Saxon], to front page, and a transition to the English language began. It was not until 1365 that the Mayor and Alderman of London ordered court proceedings to be held in English. In 1362, the Chancellor opened Parliament in English. Thus a transition period between the French and English languages was taking place during the castle building time of Edward I. These early records have been abstracted for the surname JONES before 1327. The surname JONES does not appear! The spelling of John occurs in a variety of forms which demonstrate this transition period. They are as follows: 1) Ivens [Robert de Ivens], 2) Jeaen [Roderigo de Jeaen of Spain], 3) Jevan [Eynon ap Jevan...multiple listings], 4) John [John ap Meredith...multiple listings], and 5) Jehon, Johan, John, [all three spellings listed together]. The system of names appear multiple times indicating that the Welsh had come under the English legal system. Names such as "Rhys ap Jevan", "Griffith ap Madoc ap Jevan", "Rhys ap Griffith ap Llewellyn ap Jevan", and "Eynon ap Jevan" appear. Likewise, "Jevan ap Cadogan", "Jevan ap Hywel", "Jevan ap Thlegat", and "Jevan ap Traharen" appear. The name John appears in this context as "John ap Hopkyn", "John ap Meredith", and "John ap Rhys" . On the English side, the name John is listed as "John of Eltham, son of Edward II", "John, son of Henry IV", and "John of Gaunt". The name Elis de Joneston is the only spelling that contains JONES. [This information is abstracted from an Index of Ancient Petitions, Great Britain Public Records Office, List and Indexes. Kraus Reprint Corporation, New York, 1963. Titled: "Index of Ancient Petitions, Generally before Edward III (1327-1377)] This documentation has been published in The Jones Genealogist, Vol. V, No. 4, Nov/Dec 1993.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Number Two Jones

It took around 40 years after Matilda Jones placed her name in the English records of the day[1273], before the second JONES surname appears.[1312] Philip Jones is recorded to be at Kingshill in Stoneleigh, Warwickshire. The documentation is found in the UK Archives, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Records Office under "Gregory of Stivichall" [DR10/971-DR10/1410]. In Catalogue Reference DR10, ref. DR10/1118, Philip Jones signs as a witness to a deed recorded at Kingshill in Stoneleigh 10 August 1312. He continues to resided in Warwickshire at least through 3 March 1389/90, where a brother Richard Jones is also listed. On several occasions he is listed as "of Hull(e)". In 1336, his wife is listed as Edith, and in 1352 he is recorded as being the son of a William Jones. On the 25 January 1344/45 a daughter Isolda is listed. Wow, a whole family of JONESES! These documents were created by the Gregory family of Stivichall, Warwickshire. They are listed as "Documents of Title, Deeds and Papers, Warwickshire, Kingshill in Stoneleigh", Catalogue Ref. DR10. Jones number two is a family.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

On and On it Goes

The conquest of Wales was first started by the Anglo-Saxons (Germanic folks), then the Danes (Vikings), and then Normans (Northern French). By the time of Edward I [one of the first monarchs to speak Anglo-Saxon], the Normans had been working on this conquest for more than two centuries. The "barons" who were placed along the western border of "Norman land" took turns fighting the Welsh, and then fighting the Norman monarchy. On the other side, the Welsh would fight the Normans, or marry into the Norman families, and fight the Welsh. Back and forth it would go, on and on it would go, until fighting each other was just part of the landscape. Edward had already had his border warfare while yet a young prince under his father Henry III, and had a pretty good idea what was involved fighting with these crazy, independent, Welsh. It was not until the 12th year of his reign (1284), that he finally succeeded in making Wales a "Principality". The English would call this "Statutum Wallie", and the Welsh would call this "Statues of Rhuddlan" produced 3 March 1284. It was here that Wales, "...the newly conquered Principality..." was divided into six counties and placed under "English" jurisdiction. Thus begins the English records of its Welsh domain. It is in these records that the surname JONES begin to appear. The new English counties in Wales were grouped as follows: 1) Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth, known collectively as "North Wales" and were called "...the jurisdiction of the Justice of Snowdon..." 2) Flint 3) Carmarthen, with a later addition of Pembroke, came to be known as "South Wales". 4) Cardigan, which came to called "West Wales". Sheriffs and coroners were to be appointed for each county, and the English court system was to be applied. Of course, all of this involved record keeping, and these records became the source of analysis for the JONES surname. Chamberlains, sheriffs, ministers, receivers and other officers of these new Welsh counties formed many new records. This analysis will be presented in future posts. Much more to come!

Friday, April 1, 2011

Matilda Jones - The First Jones

Matilda was a good Norman name. The wife of William I was Matilda of Flanders (d.1083). Thus, it became a very common name used by the queens during this period. Matilda of Boulongne, wife of king Stephen (d.1152); Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I(d.1118); Matilda, a daughter of Henry I was wife of emperor Henry V (d.1167). Matilda , a daughter of Henry II, was the wife of Henry the Lion. There was even a Matilda of Huntingdon, a daughter of the earl Waltheof who became the wife of David I. Matilda of Anjou, Matilda de Braose, Matida de Port, Matilda of Wolseley, and many others took this good Norman name. As to Matilda Jones, I have not been able to independently identify this person. She is recorded to have been present in Huntingdonshire Hundred Roll of 1273, under Edward I. According to "The Hundred And The Hundred Rolls, An Outline of Local Government In Medieval England", by Helen M. Cam; Huntingdon consisted of four hundreds: 1) Hirstingstan, 2)Lectonestan, 3) Normancros, and 4) Touleslond. In 1274, the "lords" of these hundreds were the Abbot of Ramsey, The Abbot of Thorney, and Edward I [the King]. The church owned two, and the King owned two. In which hundred Matilda Jones resided is not clear. With the name Matilda, I would guess it would be "Normancros" since this would seem to take its name from the Norman fortification built to protect the strategic road from London to York [Ermine Street] as it crosses the river Ouse. William I was quick to built a castle defending this spot! My guess [at this point it is only a guess] is that Matilda Jones was a widow who had come into the possession of land through her family or husband's family. Having the surname JONES would suggest that she had married into a Welsh family from the Marches. The wool trade was an important part of this area as well as the border land of the Marches. Huntingdonshire was the first place you could access a waterway to London for transport of wool. With her Welsh husband [ap John], they would have had to come under Norman law and customs which had just started to use the Anglo-Saxon Old English. [William Marshal was Henry III's justiciar and a key player in the Marches.] It was here, Huntingsonshire, that would bridge both cultures, Welsh and Norman. Hopefully, Matilda Jones can be identified more clearly.