Friday, December 30, 2011

First JONES to Lincoln's Inn 1557

According to Bellot, the earliest description of the legal institutions which were to become the "Inns of Court" was written by the Governor of Lincoln's Inn in 1425. He list four Inns of Court, and ten Inns of Chancery. Lincoln's Inn is listed with Thavie's or Davy's Inn and Furnival's Inn being attached. The Lincoln's Inn Admission Register begins 1420, but it was not until 1557 that the first admission with the JONES surname occurs. On 13 March 1556/1557, a David Jones is admitted. [folio 315, p.64] No other information is given. It is not until 5 January, 1571-1572 that the second JONES appears, being Walter Jones of "Oxon.". [Assumed to be Oxford.] A Walter Jones [Jhones] did attend Oxford 15 November 1570, and is identified as "possibly a student of Lincoln's Inn 1572. [Alumi Oronienses 1500-1714, p. 831, by Foster.]

Zachary Jones (1580), Gilbert Jones (1582), William Jones (1587), Edward Jones (1589), William Jones (1595), Henry Jones (1599), and Thomas Jones (1599) all appear before the turn of the next century. A few JONES here, and a few JONES there.

Lincoln's Inn Admission Register 1420 -1893, found special collections, University of Alabama, Law School, DA 687.L7 L7, 1896, v.1.

Bellot, H.L., The Temple, Methuen & Co., London, 1914. [Discussion found pp.14-15.]

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

First JONES to Inner Temple 1556

The Knight Templars were the origin of what became called "The Temple". The name had its roots from the fact that the initial knights were quartet in Jerusalem near the sight of "Solomon's Temple". In 1128, they were given the name "Regle du Temple" by the Pope, and this order spread rapidly throughout Europe. The oldest charter found in England for this Order is under Henry II (1153 AD) and he is responsible for many grants of property. It was in Chancery Lane, on the site of Southampton House, that the Knights Templars were settled in the London area.

The figure to the right is taken from the text by Hugh Bellot titled: The Temple, By Hugh H.L. Bellot, Methuen & Co., London, first published in 1914. It shows The Temple area as it existed in 1900, with its gardens facing the Thames. Both the "Inner Temple" and "Middle Temple" were considered "Inns of Court". The four Inns of Court were active by 1425, and the "Inner Temple Admissions Database" [ ] list the first JONES admission to the "Inner Temple" being Walter Jones, 03/11/1556. There were a total of 60 folks having the surname JONES being admitted between 1547 and 1850. What a deal!

It is also of interest to note that in the Calendar of Inner Temple (Records, Vol. I) 21 Hen VII - 45 Eliz. 1505 - 1603, p. 205 is listed the following:

Parliament held of 10 May, 2 Elizabeth, A.D. 1560. before Anthony Stapleton, Thomas Gawdy, James Renet, George Bromely, & Richard Onslow:

"order that Master Jones shall have Master Wylliam's general admission, due for his readership."

Here, a "Master Jones" was a reader (teacher) as early as 1560, but a full name is not given. Anyone know more about this "Master Jones"?

Helpful references:

Bellot, H.H., The Temple, Methuen & Co. LTD., London, 1914. [Map is copied from inside the front cover.]

Megarry, R., Inns Ancient and Modern, Selden Society, London, 1972.

Prest, W.R., The Rise of The Barristers, A Social History of The English Bar 1590-1640, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986.

Prest, W.R., The Inns of Court under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts, 1590-1640, Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, NJ,.

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

First JONES to Middle Temple 1565

The Middle Temple register of admission begins July 1501. Admissions prior to July 7, 1501 are listed in a reference titled: "Register of Admissions To The Honourable Society Of The Middle Temple", by MacGeach and Sturgess, Vol.I, 1949. Most of these early folks are listed by surname only with the earliest recorded in 1451.

The first admitted with the surname JONES is William Jones, 1565. As listed it states: "Nov. 24, William Jones, son of John Mirydeth of Bergevennye, Monmouth, gent." (p. 30)

This record again demonstrates the complexity of the surname for those of Welsh descent. Here William Jones is the son of John Mirydeth (Meredith). He has taken the surname JONES as William "son of John" who is listed with the surname "Mirydeth". Thus, in this case, the William Jones is connected to the Meredith family by DNA, not surname. In the next two to three generations, this becomes apparently two distinct surnames, and may be lost in the JONES family tree climbing.

Reference: Register of Admissions To The Honourable Society of The Middle Temple, From the Fifteenth Century to the year 1944, Vol. I, compiled under the Direction of the Deputy Treasurer, Sir Henry F. MacGeagh, and the Master of the Bench by H.A.C. Sturgess, London, by Butterworth & Co., LTD, 1949.

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

The surname JONES has been busy in the settlement of the colonies since Elizabeth Joones arrived in the Patience, 1609. The gradual spread of the surname westward continued until the states became settled.

The following map shows the states that have a town (or county), that uses the surname JONES.
The data are taken from a U.S. atlas (index) in 1998, and might now have additional or deleted locations. Twenty (20) states have a town, city, or county named with the JONES surname. From just plain JONES (Alabama) to JONESBORO (Arkansas), to JONESVILLE (Louisiana), to JONESPORT (Maine), to JONES CREEK (Texas), the JONES family seemed to settle. The last westward location seems to be Colorado which was settled around 1859 when that gold was discovered.

The figure to the right outlines the states alphabetically that have a JONES... name. The estimated population in 1998 is given, showing that JONES (county) Mississippi leads in population, with just at 62,000 folks. JONESBORO Arkansas would be next with around 46,000. I am certain that these numbers have changed, but the general idea shows that a wide range of folks are numbered.

Does anyone have an update on the information shown? If you are aware of a that is not listed, please identify it. Leave the name and location in a comment to this post. If you live in one of these towns, cities, or counties, please given some history to your town. There must have been a JONES family that gave the name to your settlement.

The information was taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol.X, no. 2, July/August, 1998.

Friday, November 18, 2011

Genealogy One-on-One

The JONES surname is perhaps one of the most difficult surnames for the genealogist to explore. After more than 50 years of climbing my own JONES tree, I have certainly fallen off a few branches.

Starting a Bed and Breakfast more than 10 years ago, I hoped to provide a place for the genealogist to search their JONES surname. Over the years many have come to get help by using the genealogy resources, mostly in the Joseph Wheeler Jones Memorial Library, and The Jones Surname Museum. Occasionally, folks have asked for my personal help. It occurs to me that there may be others who are stuck, or need help along the branches. Mentoring genealogy, what a thought! I have posted "The Brick Wall Protocol", written some years back, to help some climb their branches, and go around some of their brick walls. See:

Any interest in perhaps a week-end workshop, or help session at the B&B? Genealogy mentoring...I would call it : Genealogy One-on-One.

Friday, November 11, 2011

First JONES To Gray's Inn 1568

From the reign of Edward III, 1327-1377 AD, the "Inns of Court" have occupied a key position in the educational system of the English nation. Devoted to the technical study of English law, (rather than Roman law), which had become extensive and intricate. This system of law had its roots in the native or common law of the land.

The earliest "Manor House" of Gray's Inn was the London residence of the De Gray family. This family had strong ties with Wales, ever since Reginald de Grey was Justiciar of Chester around 1277 AD. Their legal interest lead many of the family to live and work here, ultimately forming the "Honourable Society of Gray's Inn."

The "Register of Admissions Gray's Inn, 1521-1889", by Joseph Foster, records the first to carry the JONES surname 1568. On page 37, this records that Thomas Jones (folio 574) and Owen Jones(folio 576) were registered. For my own JONES family interest, on the same page are recorded 1) George Lightfoot (folio 573) 1576, and Thomas Lucas (folio 574) 1567. The surnames Lightfoot and Lucas were to play an important part in my own JONES family history.

Way to go...Thomas and Owen...taking the surname JONES to Gray's Inn.

Friday, November 4, 2011

A New Blog: Cadwallader Jones

For those of Welsh descent or have an interest in the JONES surname, I am starting a new blog called Cadwallader Jones. I wish to tell his story using the documents that have been uncovered during the last 25-30 years of my tree climbing. An interesting story indeed! If interested, the link is:

...a good JONES surname account.

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Jones Surname to Ireland (Part II)

It was not until Henry VIII pulled the English Church out of the Roman Catholic Church and required all Welsh to adopt the English system of laws and names (Act of Union, 1536), that the name JONES begins to widely appear. In 1500 there were only six (6) JONES surnames appearing in the English legal documents, and none (0) in Wales. In 1558, there were 134 JONES surnames [England], and 115 JONES surnames in Wales! I have seen several writers interpret this finding as the surname JONES beginning in England. However, it was the Welsh in areas that came under the control of English laws that took the surname JONES. Thus, first and foremost, the JONES surname is Welsh. This would also be true for the Welsh naming system as it was changed under English law.

The JONES surname concentrated around Dublin, with around 10 JONES families having arms recorded in Burke by 1840. Other Irish counties having JONES families with arms were, Meath, Kildare, and Wexford. [All being close to Dublin.] On the northwestern coast, Londonderry, Leitrim, and Sligo had JONESES. I would suspect that these JONES families began their history around Dublin, and branched out from there.

I have not had the opportunity to research Irish records regarding the first appearance of the JONES surname. Does anyone know the date and location? Please post a comment.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Jones Surname to Ireland

The Celtic tribal groups had exchanged their cultures and language across the Irish Sea from the earliest days. The Irish, taking advantage of Roman withdrawal, competed with the Scots, Picts, and Saxons, for a piece of Welsh territory. Inscribed stones document this exchange of culture, which became scattered about the landscape of Wales. [Ogam inscriptions, some with Latin and Ogam.] It was the threat of Irish invasion that brought Cunedda from the Men of the North to help save Gwynedd! [The northern most territory in Wales.]

Things had pretty much settled down by the Norman invasion. The Celtic Church had adopted the Roman Church way of life [hair cuts, calender, marriage, and the like] except for a few of those fringe elements that seemed to want to remain a little more independent. Hadrian IV, the first and only English Pope (1154-1159 AD), decided to give Ireland to Henry II. This Pope essentially wanted Henry II to conquer Ireland and bring this island under the influence and guidance of the Church in Rome. Henry II directed Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed Strongbow, to take a leadership roll in this endeavor. Strongbow took a large number of Welsh archers and Welsh cavalry to Ireland. These folks were essentially private adventurers from Wales seeking lands of their own. This invasion was most successful around the city of Dublin, and English law was established as in an English shire. The area around Dublin became know as "the Pale". Under Edward I, Dublin, Waterford, and Cork became the major trading towns under English (was actually Norman) control.

It was during this time time that many of the Welsh families settled in Ireland. Here they began their families' tradition among the Irish. Of course the Welsh kept some of their culture, language, and naming system which was always a puzzle to the Normans, Anglo-Saxons, and ultimately what became the English. Thus the Welsh brought to Ireland their frequently used Christian name JOHN. The Church, using Latin, would spell it IOAN. The Normans using French would spell it JEVAN. The Welsh using their language would spell it SION. The Anglo-Saxons using their language spelled it JOHN. Those Welsh who mostly came to fight were under Norman influence and adopted JEVAN. The Irish would spell it "SEAN" (Shawn) The literature of the time records both "ap Jevan", "ap John", and in many cases "ap Ievan". Thus begins the JONES surname in Ireland. [More to come!]

For reference to Ogam see:

"A History of Wales", by John Davies, p. 47.

"The Celtic Realms", by Myles Dillon and Nora Chadwick, pp. 38-40.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Average Age Admission, Oxford 1500-1599 For Jones Surname

Researching the JONES surname often requires some additional work. How to get around all those brick walls when they present their ugly heads seem to be a common experience. For me this occurred in my JONES family tree climbing when I discovered a number of family members attended that university called Oxford. Thomas, Richard, and Henry, all coming from Wales between 1500 and 1599. How does one go about sorting out all those with the first name Thomas, Richard, and Henry? Over the years, a detailed chronology has served to help separate many among the branches. See:

To aid this chronology, I asked what was the average age of those who where admitted to Oxford for the years 1500-1599? This was necessary since there were 146 individuals with the surname JONES admitted to Oxford, and only 72 gave their ages at admission. [49%] Knowing the average age at admission, no matter what the first name, would allow one to estimate a birth year. The figure above shows the results of this study.

There were 72 individuals with the surname JONES admitted to Oxford with the age at admission given. The range was 12 years [the youngest], to 30 years old [the oldest]. The average age at admission was 17.32 years. The most common age was tied between age 16 and age 19 [ each with 12]. Two folks were at the upper range of 29 and 30 years. Removing these two in the totals would only change the average age to 16.97 years. So, overall, it would seem that the JONES "young ins" were around 17 years old when they left Wales to visit the big city. If a Richard JONES was admitted 1576 and no age at admission was listed, it would estimate his birth year around 1559. A starting point for exploring those JONES families having children around 1559 in the area of Wales.

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Jones Surname: Oxford/Cambridge 1500-1600 County of Origin

Folks who shared the JONES surname, and attended Oxford and Cambridge between the years 1500-1600, were evaluated for their county of record. Every JONES admission who had their county of origin listed was recorded. The map to the right displays the results.

Pink color represents those recorded from Cambridge and the Blue color represents those from Oxford. The yellow color shows those counties that did not have a JONES surname recorded. Those counties that had a JONES attending both Universities are represented in white, with a pink and blue outline around the county.

Twelve counties in England did not have a person with the JONES surname attending between 1500-1600. All the Welsh counties had a JONES recorded, with only Pembroke going to Cambridge. Twenty one counties had a JONES attend Oxford only, and eleven counties had a JONES attend Cambridge only. Seven counties had a JONES from which both Oxford and Cambridge were attended.

Those attending Cambridge seem to cluster to the north, east, and southeast. Those attending Oxford seem to cluster from the west, and southwest.

Ireland also had a number of JONES attend, going both to Oxford and Cambridge.

The JONES surname moving into the educational system of England 1500-1600. There were a few of us there.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Jones Surname at Oxford - Cambridge 1500-1660

The JONES surname first appears at Oxford 1505 (Richard Joonys) and at Cambridge 1531 (Gawen Jones). The drawing to the right shows the JONES surname attending both during the years 1500-1660. The numbers are shown in roughly 4-5 year periods, with those attending Cambridge giving by the X. [X marks the spot!]

One can see clearly that Oxford was the center of higher education for those with the JONES surname. The Welsh tended to be supports of the Crown from the time of Edward II, when he was first called "Prince of Wales" by his father Edward I. [1301] On the whole, Oxford seemed to support the Crown with it being the first location of Charles I to organize the defense of his monarchy. There appears to be a gradual increase in the numbers of JONES from 1561, peaking at 1631-1635.

For Cambridge, the peak years were 1595-1600. There was certainly a strong showing at the close of Elizabeth I (Tudors) to that of James I (Stuarts) most likely reflecting the conflict between Catholics and Protestants. [ This conflict had much to do with the period leading up to the English Civil War [1638-1660].

This figure also shows that the JONES surname was increasing in numbers, with almost an exponential curve appearing. This of course was stopped by the Civil War. Those attending Cambridge appear to decline starting at the reign of Charles I only to make their come back under the Commonwealth.

For "Alumni Cantabrigienese" see pp. 484-489, a total of 115. For "Alumni Oronienses" see pp. 817-833, a total of 342. About a 3 to 1 ratio is shown.

For the references used see the last two post.

This is research done by The Jones Genealogist, 1985-1991 while researching his own JONES surname. All rights reserved.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

First Jones to Cambridge 1531

Two hundred and fifteen individuals with the surname JONES are recorded in the "Alumni Cantabrigienses" from the earliest times to 1751. The first to attend was Gawen Jones, in 1531-32. His record is given as:

"Jones, Gawen (appears also as Gawen). B.D. 1531-2. A friar." [p.485]

I would guess that the surname was somewhat uncertain, since it states "appears also as Gawen" which implies the surname, not the first name, since the spelling is exactly the same. "B.D.", I believe is an abbreviation for "bachelor of divinity" but if someone knows for sure please comment.

The reference for the above is titled:

"Alumni Cantabrigienses : A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office At The University of Cambridge, From The Earliest Times To 1900." Compiled by, John Venn and J.A. Venn, Cambridge, at the University Press, 1922.

Say hello to Gawen Jones, a friar.

Friday, September 16, 2011

First Jones to Oxford 1505

Joseph Foster records the alumni of Oxford University starting 1500. His account is titled:

"Alumni Oronienses: The Members Of The University of Oxford, 1500-1714: Their Parentage, Birthplace, and Year of Birth, With A Record Of Their Degrees."

It goes on to describe:

"Being The Matriculation Register of the University, Alphabetically Arranges, Revised, and Annotated, by Joseph Foster. Volume I-Early Series."

It was printed by Kraus Reprint Limited, Nendeln/Liechtenstei, 1968.

On page 827 it list the first JONES to attend Oxford. A Richard Jones (Joonys) to be exact. It is recorded that he received a "B.Can.L. 1 March, 1506-7". [Bachelor of Canon Law] He is called "chaplain" in 1507. An exact copy of this entry reads:

"Jones, Richard (Joonys): B.Can.L. (sup. 16 March). 1505-6, chaplain 1507, B.Can.L. 1 March 1506-7."

Way to go Richard! The first to carry the surname JONES to Oxford.

Monday, September 12, 2011

U.S. Census of 1790 and The Jones Surname

The U.S. Census began in 1790 and has been done every ten years since this beginning. The "Name of head of family"; the "number of free white males of 16 years and up, including heads"; "free white males under 16"; "free white females, including heads"; "all other free persons"; and the "number of slaves" were all listed.

There was a booklet published by the U.S. Government Printing Office in 1909 that lists all the surnames and their variations which were represented by at least 100 white persons in the U.S. in 1790. Listed are approximately 5700 surnames plus variations of the spellings, average size of each family, total number of heads of families, total number of all other members, and a breakdown of the number of families per state. My research notes show that a copy of this booklet was available from "The Researcher's Bookshelf, Division of Heritage Quest, Orting, WA. [I do not know if this reference is still available, but would make a valuable research tool.]

A listing for the surname JONES is as follows:

Total of "Heads of Family" = 2,561

Average size of family = 5.6

All other members = 11,739

Heads of families for each state:

North Carolina = 558

Virginia = 345

Pennsylvania = 289

Massachusetts = 287

Maryland = 239

New York = 210

South Carolina = 190

Connecticut = 173

New Hampshire = 104

Maine = 87

Vermont = 59

Rhode Island = 20

So there you have it. The JONES surname in the 1790 U.S. Census! North Carolina and Virginia seemed to collect the most. [35%] Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland, and New York had roughly the same. Poor Rhode Island missed out. At any rate, if you carried the JONES surname, you had a good chance of being from North Carolina or Virginia in the 1790 census.

This research was first published in The Jones Genealogist, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, July/August, 2006.

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Smith, Brown, Williams, Johnson, and Jones

The following article analyzes the use of first names. It presents the surnames SMITH, BROWN, WILLIAMS, JOHNSON, and JONES that were indexed in the first volume of Cavaliers and Pioneers, 1623-1666.

The first names were identified and grouped by surname. The first name "John" was the most common name used for Smith (67 times), Williams (94 times), Johnson (87 times), and Brown (48 times). It was not the first name used for Jones! (48 times).

William (78 times), Richard (51 times), Thomas (50 times), and then John (48 times) was found to be used as first names for the surname Jones. How about that. Who would have thought that William Jones was more common than John Jones!

John as first name was the most common name used among all the surnames analyzed, totally 344 times. The second most common first name was Thomas (223 times), then William (201 times) and Richard (114 times).

The tables to the right summarize these findings with the first name listed in the right hand column, and the surname across the top.

Interestingly, the many first names used with the surname Jones does not appear used the surname Johnson. This implies that those folks with the surname Johnson did not follow the same pattern of the Joneses! This would suggest to me that the surname Johnson did not share the same origins as the surname Jones.

The surname Williams shared the most first names. This implies that the surname Williams and Jones most likely have common roots. [Good Welsh names.]

Explore the first name usage for yourself, and see what impressions you gain.

The study was published 1999 in The Jones Genealogist, Vol.XI, No.1, May/June issue.

Monday, August 22, 2011

A Classification System (Part III)

This post continues the JONES Classification System. It is for those families that recorded "a lion ramp. (rampant) on their coat of arms listed in Burke 1840. This is the third analysis based upon the color of the "charge" (symbol= a lion rampant).

The black (sa.), green (vert.), and silver (ar.) charges are then broken down by the color of the shield.

There are at least four distinct JONES families demonstrated.

Again this shows that there are many different "coat of arms" for the JONES surname.

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

On a First name bases 1273 - 1600

During most of our lives we are called by our first names. For the Welsh, this has not always been the case, but for the JONES surname it became a factor in the English legal records around 1273. [After Edward I got control.]

The following post describes the first names that were recorded for the surname JONES from 1273 until 1600. They are recorded in chronological sequence from the date that they were first recorded in the English legal system.

Please note that the Philip Jones family is not included because this group was not discovered until after this article was published in 1996. So actually, Philip would be the first male name appearing.

The most common first name is of course John, but it is tied with William and Thomas comes in a close second.

Female names begin to appear in larger numbers after 1563. I suspect this has to do with the fact that the first generation of JONES surnames are ending, and the wives (or widows) are entering the court system.

The data are taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol.VIII, No.3, Sept/Oct 1996.

Friday, August 12, 2011

JONES in Virginia 1625

On March 22, 1622, roughly 1/3 of the settlers of Virginia were killed. After this suprise attack, the Virginia colony struggled to survive. A census (muster) was taken 16 February 1623, that listed the extent of the attack. Following this, a census (Muster list) was taken January 1624/25. Those who had a surname JONES were abstracted for these two "musters".

The tables to the right give an alphabetical listing of the JONES in Virginia January, 1625. Some had come after 1622, so where not present during the attacks of 1622. When the ages are given, a birth year has been calculated. The name of the ship, and when they arrived to Virginia are also recorded.

The JONES of Virginia, 1625...say hello.

Remember to click on the tables to enlarge them.

Friday, August 5, 2011

The First Jones to Virginia

It was May, 1609, that nine ships left the coast of England. They contained 500 men, women, and children who were to "relieve" the new colony planted at Jamestown. Six of the ships left London, and three ships left from Plymouth, all with great hope and expectations. Crossing the Atlantic would have been dangerous enough, but throw in plague, hurricane, ship wreck, and a 40% mortality rate, and you have the ingredients for the "perfect storm".

Only 300 of those who started this crossing arrived at Jamestown, 1609. One of these 300 was "Elizabeth Joones." She is first listed as a "servant of Thomas Dunthorne", and is recorded as arriving to Virginia in the Patience, 1609. [The Patience was one of two small ships constructed in Bermuda to bring the survivors of the Sea Venture which had wreck after the hurricane hit! It actually arrived 9 months later in May 1610, but Cavaliers and Pioneers Vol. I, p. xxix, records her as arriving 1609.] She is listed as "Aged 30" in the Muster list of 1624/25. The age entered was that recorded at the time the muster was taken, so she was born around 1595. [1625 - 30 years] In this muster reported by Hotten, p. 255, a "Sarah Joones aged 5 borne in Virginia" follows her name in the Muster of Thomas Dunthorne. So around 1620 she was having children. To be listed in the Muster of 1624/25 also means that she survived the Indians attacks of 1622! She is listed as an "Ancient Planter" and the wife of "Giles Jones, Gent." being within the "Island of Point Comfort, 16 Oct. 1628. (CP, p. 10)

As best as I have been able to uncover, she married before 1637, a second husband named Henry Southwell (d. 1637), and married Richard Popeley before 1638. So she at least lived to the full age of 60 years or more. She certainly had a lot of stories to tell!

Friday, July 29, 2011

First JONES to the New World

John White's journal of his voyage to the New World was written in 1587. In this journal he list the names of all the men, women, and children who arrived safely to the first English settlement in America. Roanoke settlement it was called, and it has be named "The Abandoned Colony".

The list is arranged first by "Men", then by "WOMEN", then by "BOYS AND CHILDREN", then by "CHILDREN BORN IN VIRGINIA", and finally by "SAVAGES WHO HAD BEEN IN ENGLAND AND RETURNED HOME TO VIRGINIA". One hundred and eighteen names are recorded. The list of men seem to be organized according to prestige, with John White heading the list. Anaias Dare, the son-in-law to John White, is listed third. [Remember, Virginia Dare, his daughter, was the first English child to be born in America.] Elyoner Dare is the first to be listed among the women.

There are three with the surname JONES listed. First is JOHN JONES [of course it had to be John] He is listed at number 14 among the 90 men recorded. Griffen Jones falls all the way down to number 85. Jane Jones is listed as number 6 among the 17 ladies recorded. It does not record the relationship between these folks, but the colony was family oriented. Since Jane Jones was in the top 3rd of her group, and John Jones was in the top third of his, I suspect they were husband and wife. Griffen Jones may or may not be related.

So there you have it. The first JONES "...who arrived safely in Virginia and stayed there to live, 1587, in the twenty-ninth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth."

John Jones, Griffen Jones, and Jane Jones were their names.

Reference: "The New World, The First Pictures of America", Edited by, Stefan Lorant, by the Beck Engraving Company, for Meredith Press, 1946. The list is given on pages 165-166.

The numbering system was my addition and not part of the original documents.

Sunday, July 24, 2011

A Classification System (Part II)

The flow charts to the right continue the outline of the JONES SURNAME CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Using the symbols (charges) and colors (tinctures) of the coat(s) of arms for the JONES surname before 1840, an analysis was done in order to group the various JONES families. Starting with "a lion rampant", each shield was coded according to these factors (charges and tinctures). To follow the first flow chart: 1) "a lion ramp." is at the top. [This represents the primary charge.], 2) next is the color of the charge given as gold, blue, red, ...etc., 3) the color(s) of the shield are then organized by their tinctures, until 4) a JONES family is identified. In this case, the JONES family of Kelston Park, Somerset is described. You can then see that 37% of the JONES arms had a gold lion rampant as their symbol. Twenty nine percent had a blue lion rampant, so on, and so on down the colors recorded. Only 4 % had a silver lion rampant.

The second flow chart shows further analysis for the "blue lion rampant", with eleven distinct JONES families. A variety of locations were found, showing again how the JONES surname is found in various counties.

The red lion with a gold shield is found in four families. These include Wales and England. (Oxford) Thus, the wide distribution of the JONES surname appears before Burke recorded his families in 1840. More analysis to come.

Burke's book commonly called "The General Armory", was first published in 1842. In the preface, it states that it was founded on "...the Heralds' Visitations, the County Histories, and the heraldic writing of Dugdale, Camden, Guillim, Edmondson, Berry, Nicholas, and others...". It records over 60,000 coats of arms! Not many JONES families in this book.

The flow charts are taken from: The Jones Genealogist, Vol.VIII, No.5, Jan/Feb, 1997.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

A Classification System

Having organized and analyzed the symbols and colors of the arms that are given for the JONES surname, it became evident that a classification system could be used. This classification system utilized the "primary charge" as the major item used to group the JONES families that shared this symbol. Then the shield's "colors" were broken down by their arrangement to produce a group that had shared this identity. The JONES family that shared this identity was tagged as a "HOUSE" [The Welsh used a term "plant".] The individual responsible for founding this family was added giving the title: "House of ............" , such as House of Trevor. This was work done more than twenty years ago, and published in The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VIII, No.3, Sept/Oct 1996. [I began this newsletter in 1989.]

The study results are shown in the flow chart to the right. The lion rampant was the first symbol to be analyzed. Those who founded a Welsh tribe with a JONES lineage, such as "Bleddyn ap Cynfyn", and "Tudor Trevor", are shown on the first page. Three JONES family lines come through Bleddyn ap Cynfyn!

The second page shows additional JONES lines as they were identified through the analysis. Multiple JONES family are found. At least 15 distinctive groups are found. [Just using the lion rampant!] From London to Ireland, these JONES families are shown.

This again demonstrates why the surname JONES is not always genetically related. However, this classification system can be used to identify the origins of many of the JONES surname families as they originated in Wales, England, and Ireland.

I called this "The Jones Classification System." Further analysis to come.

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

JONES "Coat(s) of Arms" [Part III] The Symbols

The article to the right is taken from The Jones Genealogist, which describes an analysis of the symbols used on the JONES coat(s) of arms. It begins by taking the 42 shields which share the common totem, lion rampant. It uses the "rules" of heraldry outlined in the last post to evaluate the colors [tinctures] recorded for each JONES coat of arms.

The outline begins by showing one JONES arms as it was recorded on page 548 of Burke. Each arms that had the symbol "lion rampant" was categorized by the method outlined in the article.

The bottom of the page shows the results by colors and metals. A "gold" lion made up 37%. This was followed by the "blue" (29%), "red" (12%), "black" and "green" (9% each), and lastly "silver" at 4%.

The shields were then analyzed by the base color or tincture of the shield. This gave 14 distinct shields, thus 14 distinct JONES families. This is just for the symbol, "lion rampant"! The post entitled: JONES "Coat(s) of Arms" [Part I], June 28, 2011, shows that there are multiple symbols (charges) used among the JONES families recorded in Burke.

The above outline demonstrates how the JONES arms can be grouped and analyzed by using established heraldic systems. Using this approach, the arms will be ultimately grouped into families sine the "rules" of heraldry allow only one arms to use exactly the same combination of charges, colors, and ordinaries. [Remember to click on the picture to enlarge the image. ]

More analysis to come.

The study is taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VIII, No. 2, July/Aug, 1996, p. 6.

Monday, July 4, 2011

JONES "Coat(s) of Arms"[Part II] Terms and Abbreviations

The English authorities began their system of armory with the employment of full body armour. This system set down the rules and the laws that govern the use, display, and meaning of the drawings placed upon the shield, helmet, or banner. The following post will try to outline some basic terms and abbreviations used to record the coat of arms. Hopefully this will help the reader to better understand the description and appearance of the "coat of arms".

The major component is of course the symbol [emblems or charges] place upon the shield. This symbol, like the "lion", is the image that the individual [or family] wanted to represent. In Wales this often came from the concept of the "totem", from which the family would trace their lineage. [It symbolized the special character or strength of the tribe.] The symbol or charge was place upon the shield that had a basic color. In some cases, only a color with special shapes would be used. [The previous post show these symbols for the surname JONES before 1840.]

There were some basic rules and principles which pertain to the use of colors and figures upon a shield. Only five colors [tinctures] are allowed. These are:

1) red, "gules", abbreviated gu.

2) blue, "azure", az.

3) black, "sable", sa.

4) green, "vert", vert.

5) purple, "purpure", purp.

There are also two metals used:

1) gold, "or", or.

2) silver, "argent", ar.

In addition, there are symbols for animal furs based on the weasel, called "ermines":

1) ermine (white field with black spots)

2) ermines (black field with white spots)

3) erminois (gold field with black spots).

You can imagine how complicated it becomes, but basically, color is not placed on another color, nor metal on metal. A "charge" of one color [like red, blue, or green] is not placed upon another color, only a metal [ gold or silver]. Thus, a "gold" [metal] lion, can not be place upon a "silver" [metal] shield. Likewise, a "blue" [color] lion can not be place on a "red"[color] shield.

The steps in describing a coat of arms are as follows:

first : name the field, i.e. the background color or metal of the shield,

second: name the principle charge, i.e. the special symbol or arrangement place upon the background color,

third: name lesser charges on the field (if any),

fourth: name any lesser devices (symbols) place on the principle charge.

Read the following arms: "or. a lion ramp az."?

It would be, a blue lion [rampant = standing] placed upon a gold shield.

Let's try another: "ar. a lion ramp sa."?

It would be, a black lion [standing], on a blue shield.

A complete description of Heraldry is given in the glossary starting on p. xxviii, of Burke's General Armory.

The following post has been summarized from, The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VII, No. 2, July/August, 1995.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

JONES "Coat(s) of Arms" [Part I]

There are those who want to sell a JONES "Coat of Arms". This implies that there is only one JONES family, with a common male ancestor. This has been shown not to be the case. [See post: "Phonetic not Genetic", June 6, 2011, and "Genetic Bowel of Spaghetti", June 10, 2011. Also under blog, posts : "The Jones Surname: Not genetic but Phonetic", June 18, 2011, and "Multiple Roots", June 22, 2011.] Thus, there can not be a single JONES "Coat of Arms" for the JONES surname. There are multiple coat of arms under families that carry the JONES surname, but more often than not, they are not related genetically.

As early as 1840, there were at least 123 JONES coat of arms! These are analyzed by the primary symbol (charge) shown in the figure to the right. The lion represented 45% of the symbols placed upon the shields. The "lion rampant" was 34%. The cross/pheons (spear heads) was second with 13%. Swords, arrows, and spear heads were third at about 9%. A breakdown of these symbols are shown in the flow chart, with birds, boar's heads, Nag's (horses), Stag's heads, Wolfe's heads, and Bull's heads being found. This shows multiple symbols, for multiple JONES families. Unless you can discover which JONES family you are related, then you will not know which "coat of arms" belongs to your Y-chromosome.

This figure was taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VIII, No. 5, July/August, 1996, p.5.

Friday, June 24, 2011

English Orders of Chivalry and The Jones Surname

In 1906, William Shaw published a book listing a complete record of all the "Orders of Chivalry in England". It is titled: "Complete Record from the Earliest Time to the Present Day of the Knights of all the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of Knights Bachelors".

The following tables present the abstract of this reference for the surname JONES. It begins with the reign of Edward III. The first JONES [spelled Johanes], appears 1542. This would be just after the completion of the Act of Union.

The names are arranged in chronological order from the first JONES ,1542, to the last in 1901.

Thomas Johanes, Kt. is the first. He is followed by Henry Joanes, Kt. in 1553. It is not until 1584 that the spelling is given as JONES. Hereafter, the spelling is JONES. Only six individuals are listed under the surname from 1542- 1591.

Elias Jones, Kt. starts the 1600s, with 12 individuals recorded.
Some information is given, such as Roger Jones, Kt. of Sligo; in Ireland, by viscount Falkland. Only one individual, Henry Jones, Kt., is identified during the Commonwealth period under Cromwell. [1658]

For the 1700s, there were only four individuals, with Thomas Jones, Kt. leading the way. [I suspect that most of the JONES had already left the Island.]

Twenty two individuals were knighted during the 1800s. It seems the 1830s were a good decade.

Alfred L. Jones, K.C.M.G., begins the 1900s, but the book was published in 1906, thus leaving Alfred as the only JONES to this date.

The orders of knighthood was initiated by the eldest son of Edward III, widely known as "The Black Prince", 1336. This again suggest that the surname JONES did not appear in these
order books until after The Act of Union, 1536.

The various abbreviations are as follows:

Order of the Garter, dates from 1348 - Kt.

Order of the Thistle, dates from 1539 - Kt.

Order of Bath, dates from 1725 - K.C.B. or G.C.B.

The Guelphic Order, dates from 1815 - K.H.

Order of St.Michael and St. George, dates from 1814 - K.C.M.G.

The tables are taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VI, No.3, Sept/Oct, 1994, pp. 1-3. The information is abstracted from "The Knights of England", Vol.I, and Vol. II, by W.A. Shaw, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1971. Remember, you can click on the tables to enlarge them.

Sunday, June 19, 2011

Jones Surname to Virginia 1635 - 1656

The early settlement of Virginia was a very difficult and costly experiment for those willing to come to a new land. There was a high death rate and very primitive living conditions. The motivation for coming to such a place under such circumstances must have been strong.

Following the Indian uprising of 1622, an investigation in England was made into the London Company and its ability to manage the Virginia settlements. Interestingly, this investigation was headed by Sir William Jones, Lord Mayor of London.

The charter of the London Company was annulled and Virginia became a royal colony. This action meant that the company lost control of lands and peoples. This also meant that the new settlements would come under the protection of the Crown which would help stabilize and organize the colony. Royal officials provided a count of the colonist in the Muster list of 1624/25. This "muster" list recorded 1218 individuals, 934 males and 270 females. Seventy-six percent were below the age of 30 years and 89% were born in Britain or Europe.

By 1630, the population had doubled within the 27 distinct settlements. This marked increase lead the colony to develop the county system. In 1634, a Virginia assembly divided the settlements into eight divisions or counties. These counties and their populations were as follows: 1) Henrico - pop. 419, 2) Charles City - pop. 511, 3) James City - pop. 886, 4) Warwick - pop. 811, 5) Warrasqueoc (Isle of Wight) - pop. 522, 6) Elizabeth City - pop. 854, 7) Charles River (Yorke) - pop. 510, and 8) Accomack (Northampton) - pop. 396. These early counties provided governmental functions and local magistrates or "justices of the peace". These counties also provided the records and accounts of the early settlers for each area. A total of 216 Joneses immigrated to Virginia during the period 1635 - 1656. The figure above shows the pattern of this Jones Surname immigration. It clearly shows that the Jones' immigration was impacted by the civil war in England. A second wave of immigration begins after the Commonwealth is established in England.

Data abstracted from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. 1, No.3, Sept./Oct., 1989, pp.1-3.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Jones Surname by English Monarch 1485-1714

Over time, the Jones surname made its appearance in the English legal records. Gradually at first, then expanding rapidly after the Act of Union under Henry VIII. [See post: Impact, The Act of Union 1536, Feb. 24, 2011.] The table to the right shows the average number of Jones surnames that occurred in the English legal records per years for each English Monarch between 1485 and 1714.

Henry VII who brought the Welsh to the English side of things [His Tudor lineage] show that less than one Jones per year (.71) shows up during his 24 year reign. His son, Henry VIII, who produced the Act of Union, showed roughly two (2.01) Jones surnames appearing each year of his reign. The Jones surname increased under Edward VI (3.67) and nearly doubled under Mary I (6.40). [I suspect this had to do with the fact that many of the Jones were Catholic.] Finally, the last Tudor had the highest ratio of Jones surnames at more than 9 (9.07) per year. Her long rule and, more or less stable reign, produced a lot of Jones surnames.

The Stuarts cut in half the number of Jones surnames [9.07 to 4.05] when the Welsh influence was replaced by the Scots. This was reduced again under his son Charles I to 2.17 Jones per year.

The Commonwealth years [1649-1660] remained about the same with 2.91 Jones per years showing by this time that there was a balance between the warring political and religious factions.

The return of the Stuarts in 1660 showed a marked increase in the number of Jones surnames per year going from 2.91 to 6.04. This must mean that a bunch of Jones had to fight for their rights in this period of time. [Remember that these data are from the legal (court) records of the time.] James II drops the Jones surname almost in half, to 3.33 surnames per year.

When the Protestants finally take over, there is a marked increase in the Jones surname to 8.61 per years. This again most likely reflects the fact that many Jones families faced a legal quagmire during this period. By Queen Anne's time this seems to have settled a bit, with 4.67 Jones surnames appearing.

Wow, what a legal history. The Welsh fighting the English in the courts of the day.

Friday, June 10, 2011

Genetic Bowel of Spaghetti

A basic assumption doing genealogy is that your family has a common root. There is an "Adam" from which the family grew. From this ancestor "Adam" the generations begin, and the family tree grows generation after generation. This implies that if you share a common surname, then you are descended from this "Adam". Readjusting ones thinking is necessary when dealing with Welsh surname such as JONES.

An act under Henry VIII entitled; "An act for laws and justice to be ministered in Wales in like form as it is in this realm." St. 27 Hen. VIII, c. 26 1535" (Stat. Realm, III. 563) states:

"...and that all and singular person and persons, born or to be born in the said principality country or dominion of Wales shall have enjoy and inherit all and singular freedoms liberties and rights privileges and laws within this his realm, and other the king's dominions, as other the king's subjects naturally born within the same have, enjoy and inherit."

It also goes own to state that the courts were to be held in English. Furthermore, it declares,

"...also that from henceforth no person or persons that use the Welsh speech or language shall have or enjoy any manner office or fees within this realm of England, Wales, or other the King's dominions upon pain of forfeiting the same offices or fees unless he or they use and exercise the English speech or language."

This in effect outlawed the Welsh language in the legal system of England. Thus it was during this period of history that the Welsh were required to use English surnames.

The table above gives an example of how a Welsh family might produce several different surnames, but share a common grandfather. For example, if Thomas was the grandfather [before the Act of Union], and had four sons, Richard, Edward, John, and David. When these four sons had their own family [after the Act of Union] , they would be required to used English in the realm's courts. Thus when their children , Peter, David, Thomas, and John had to use English, they would give their name Peter ap Richard, David ap Edward, Thomas ap John, and John ap David. The English clerks would then write down, Peter Richards, David Edwards, Thomas Jones, and John David. Four different surnames, but all "1st cousins".

After a generation or two, the surnames Richards, Edward, Jones and David would seem to be of different stock. But alas , they would be genetically related whereas others given the JONES surname would not! So, many of the Welsh surnames that were produced during this "Act of Union" produced a genetic bowel of spaghetti . Bon appetit!

The reference for the Act of Union is found in: "English Historical Documents, edited b C.H. Williams, Oxford University Press, NY, 1967.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Phonetic not Genetic

Derivation of the Jones surname is shown in the figure to the right. The derivation is "phonetic", not "genetic". This is the reason that there are so many Jones in the English speaking world that carrying the surname, but they are not genetically related! It is a cohort effect that occurred during a transition period of Welsh-English history. The Tudors, of Welsh descent, annexed Wales into the English legal system by English law, Act of Union, 1536. [See post "Impact, The Act of Union 1536", Feb. 24, 2011.] This forced those of Welsh descent who had a father with the given name "John" to take its phonetic sound, written in the Anglo-Saxon "Iohannes", as a surname. [see posts: "The Domesday Book and John", Feb. 28, 2011; "1st To Record" , March 16, 2011; "Early English Records and the Jones Surname", March 24, 2001; "The First JONES Surname in English Records", March 28, 2011; "Ancient Petitions A Transition Period", April 16, 2011; "Welsh Names in English Records 1301 AD", April 23, 2011; "Norman Names", April 30, 2011; "Saxon Name Calling", May 4, 2011; "Dane Lands", May 8, 2011; "Welsh Birth Names 1301 AD", May 12, 2011; "Jones Surname 1273 - 1500 in England and Wales", May 17, 2011; "Jones Surname in Wales after 1500 AD", May 21, 2001; and "Jones Surname in England and Wales 1500 - 1700 AD", June 2, 2011.] During this transition period there were a variety of spellings including Ievan, Jevan, Johns, Joynes, and many others. [More will be said about this in a future post.]

Anglo-Saxon (Old English) to modern English...phonetic not genetic. This means that most who share the surname JONES are not related by Y-chromosome.

Thursday, June 2, 2011

Jones Surname In England and Wales 1500-1700

The Jones surname in England and Wales as it appears in the legal records analyzed between 1500 - 1700 A.D. is shown to the right. Each county has the total number of Jones surnames that were recorded written within. For the roughly 200 year period only five English counties failed to record a Jones surname. These counties were Durham, Derby, Nottingham, Rutland, and Isle of Wight. [Channel Islands and Isle of Man also had zero.] Middlesex had the largest number with 167. This number includes London which of course would have the most active "legal" arena. Monmouth appears second in number at 77, and Salop third 41. These counties being border counties to Wales.

The counties in Wales are also shown, but these counties were present in the last post.

The table below list each county by dates. One can follow the occurrence of the Jones surname 1544 - 1553 in chronological sequence, depending upon how these records were accounted. The records were recorded in "bundles" under the Monarch/s that reigned.[These dates are after the Act of Union, under Henry VIII, 1536.] The most active legal period being 1558-1579. After 1650, the Jones surname appears to increase dramatically from 42, to 93, to 110. A total of 564 Jones surnames by 1700.

The data set is from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VI, No.4, Nov/Dec 1994, pp. 2-4. They come from the analysis of the index "Court of Request Proceedings" representing the period 1485 - 1603. The supplementary series beginning James I and at restoration Charles II in 1660 are also included. A detailed reference list is available to those who would seek this documentation. Lists and Indexes published by Kraus Reprint Corporation, NY.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Jones Surname in Wales after 1500 AD

The Jones surname begins to appear in the counties of Wales on the most part after 1500 AD. The first Jones was Robert in 1496 from Cardiff, but it took those Tudor boys to bring the Welsh into the English system. The figure to the right shows the appearance of the Jones surname as it occurs in the counties 1544 - 1553. North to south, the border counties in Wales begin the connection. The table below shows the number of Jones by Welsh counties over the years 1544 - 1700! All these names begin to appear after the Act of Union 1536. With the reign of Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) the Jones surname rapidly increases with the highest numbers between 1558 - 1579. By 1558 all the counties of Wales, except Pembroke, had a JONES! The first Jones here (Pembroke) appears after 1579. Montgomery had the highest number (44), followed by Denbigh (40), followed by Glamorgan, then Flint (32). Thus by 1579, every county of Wales had a Jones.

These figures are abstracted and copied from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VI, No. 4, Nov/Dec, 1999. They represent more than 25 years of research into the Jones surname. The English counties will follow. Remember that you can click on the pictures to enlarge the table for the Welsh counties.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Jones Surname 1273 - 1500 in England and Wales

Following the Statues of Rhuddlan, 3 March 1284, the new "Principality" [of Wales] was divided into six counties. Over the next two centuries the JONES surname begins to show up in English records. A small number at first that were scattered about several English counties. The figure to the right shows the dates of the Jones surname as it appears in the counties. Philip Jones, 1312 in Warwickshire, to Robert Jones in Cardiff Castle 1496. It was this Robert Jones that was the first Jones in a county of Wales!

A large number of Joneses are found in Warwickshire 1313 - 1389 which represents one Jones family. The name seems to concentrate in the counties that border on Wales and England [the Marches]. These counties were also involved in wool trade. I suspect this is the major reason that the Jones surname follows this group of English records. The Welsh Marches provided the very best wool in western Europe and many Welsh were dependent on wool. A reference titled : "Power and Profit, The Merchant in Medieval Europe" records that 45,000 sacks of wool were traded in 1301. Each sack of wool represented 180 - 250 sheep! Just think how many sheep! [180 x 45,000 !]

There you have the beginning of the Jones surname in England and Wales. These dates are taken from the historic records of England, Great Britain Public Records Office, List and Indexes, Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1966, New York. [Located at University of Alabama, Main Library, Reference Room, REF.CD 1040.AZ. No. !] The book is : "Power and Profit, The Merchant In Medieval Europe, by Peter Spufford, Thames & Hudson, NY, 2002, pp 327 -328.

Thursday, May 12, 2011

Welsh Birth Names 1301 AD

The name given to a male child at birth was announced to the tribe before the elders, and he became an offical member of the kindred. To his birth name, the father's name was joined to his sons, by the Welsh term ap/ab. [ap before a consonant, and ab before a vowel] The tribal chiefs would then add the family's ancestory, by adding the next four generations of grandfathers.

Thus a male child would become a son of a six-generation patrilineal kindred. [patrilineally is through the male side] Thus a kindred was counted to the 4th cousins!

The figure to the right shows a listing of Welsh names recorded in English records of Edward I, 1301. This pattern of names has been discussed in a previous post describing the way English scribes wrote down their Welsh names. A total of 365 names were recorded in the Welsh manner. The following is a description of the "birth" names used in this group of Welsh outlaws.

The 365 names contained a total of 813 birth names. Not surprising was the fact that "Yevan" accounted for 104 (13%) of these names! This was the Norman-French way of spelling John, and it was the most frequent birth name used among this group. The next birth name was "Lewelyn" at 54 (7%). The following list shows the remaining birth names above 1% in descending order:

David 43 (5%), Madok 39 (5%), Griffith 32 (4%), Howel 32 (4%), Yervorth 26 (3%), Waghan 24 (3%), Wilim [William, Wylim] 20(2%), Trahan 19 (2%), Phelip 19 (2%), Gronu 19 (2%), Goch 18 (2%), Res 17 (2%), Seisil 14 (2%), Rosser 14 (2%), Cadugan 13 (2%), Itherl [Itherl] 11 (1%), Eynon 10 (1%), and Ivor 10 (1%). This list of names made up 64 % of the birth names.

The spelling "John" occured only 5 times (.006 %)!

Thus, at this point in the English records of the day, "Jevan" was the most common birth name among the Welsh. This birth name was the root of the JONES surname.

The list is analyzed from Patent Rolls, Edward I, made available by Professor G.R. Boynton, University of Iowa Libraries.

A helpful reference in understanding the Welsh kindred is: "Wales in the Early Middle Ages", by Dr. Wendy Davies, Leicester University Press, 1982.

Sunday, May 8, 2011

Dane Lands

Just about the time that the Anglo-Saxons began writing down their history, a number of folks showed up wanting some of the land. Vikings they were called, these people from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Arriving around 875 AD they took over a large part of this island, mostly along the coast. The map to the left shows a rough distribution of these settlements down to the very heart of the land. Their language named a multiple of sites and villages which have been marked in green. The Anglo-Saxon continued to fight them right up to the time that the Frenchman William arrived in 1066. The map to the right shows the distribution of the name John as it is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. It was far from the most common used name, but the blue shows a wider distribution than the green. This would make me believe that it had to do with the establishment of Christianity among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, and not from anything the Danes language had to contribute. Please note that this was the spelling translated as "John".

A helpful reference is "A History of The Vikings", by Gwyn Jones, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984. [another Jones!]

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Saxon Name Calling

Seven manuscripts and two fragments compiled in the 800s AD [after Offa's Dyke] compose what came to be called "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles". It was written in the vernacular at the monasteries instead of being written in Latin. An ecclesiastical calender was used beginning with the year 1 AD, reading, "Octavian reigned for fifty-six years, and in the forty-second year of his reign, Christ was born." It ends in the year 1154 AD with, "King Stephen was dead this year..." Thus for more than one thousand years, the Saxon recorded their calendar. A lot of names were recorded during this time!

It appears that the Saxon's dominate method of listing names [name calling] was just to give the name! "Severus received the kingdom..", "Bratian recieved the kingdom", "Cerdic and Cynric killed a British king named Natanlaod...", "Hengest and Horsa fought Vortieger the king", and many, many other. Occasionally, a qualifier was used such as "Vortigern the king", and "Theodosius the Younger". Many of the religious leaders were identified as "Archbishop Mellitus", and "Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne...". Thus it would seem that a religious or social position of standing was recognized. Otherwise, just call them by name.

So the Welsh would tell who their father's, father was. The Normans would tell where they came from. The Saxon would call them by name.

The quotes are taken from a wonderful reference titled: "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, The Authentic Voices of England, From The Time of Julius Caesar To The Coronation of Henry II", translated and collated by Anne Savage. It contains a world of additional pictures and items that give a broad picture of the Anglo-Saxons during this period.

Saturday, April 30, 2011

Norman Names

When meeting someone for the first time, it is common to ask "where are you from?". In Kentucky, if you are not from Louisville or Lexington, you reply by stating stating "I'm from 'such and such county'." I am from Clark County or, I am from Boyle County. The Normans took this to the extreme by including the place they were from into their very name. They used a French term "de" which literally is a preposition meaning "of". In context this would mean "from". Thus Saber de Aldham would be staying, I am Saber from Aldham, by just giving his name.

In the Patent Rolls of Henry III, A.D. 1216-1225, there is an index which list the recorded name of the folks involved in these accounts of Norman history. The most common form of Norman name follows this structure: (name) followed by (de) followed by (location). Examples are William de Abbrineis, Ralph de Aeneurt, and Robert de Dunewich. Now when a son of the first Norman was given, it would be listed as Robert son of Robert de Dunewich. This type of recording was necessary to distinguish between the two Roberts.

In these Norman records, it was also common to list an individual by using the French "de le" or "de la". [le being masculine, and la being feminine gender] The French meaning "of the" where the article "le/la" matches the gender of the word it precedes. Thus John de la Barre, and Roger de la Barre would mean John of the Barre.

At times there would be a listing like today's names, such as Fremin Bekin, Michael Belet, and Reginald Cabus. This name type would often be following by series of descriptors such as, " W. Cadel, master of the Templars this side the mountains".

In some cases, all types would be combined such as "Master Geoffrey de Calete, envoy to the Pope". In this case, a qualifier (master) was followed by (name), followed by (of), followed by (location).

It was at this time that the term "fitz" was also used. A listing such as "Henry son of Reginald Fitz-Count" This term means "son of" but appears to be an application of the Anglo-Saxon "fetys" meaning "well-made". [Perhaps a tongue in cheek or a statement of respect.] Thus, the name would mean, Henry son of Reginald son of "well-made" Count.

Well there you have it. The Normans wanted you to know where they were from. As indicated in the previous post, the Welsh wanted you to know who their father was. Where are you from? Who is your father? Much like today.

The reference analyzed is "Patent Rolls", Henry III, A.D. 1216-1225. Public Record Office, London.

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Welsh Names in English Records 1301 AD

In Wales, Edward I was here to stay. His legal representatives spread out about the new counties he had created in Wales, making this new occupation a problem for many Welshmen. Thus, the Welsh and their names became part of this new legal system recorded by those who kept the records.

In 1301, a number of these Welshmen were ordered to appear for trial regarding their "outlawry" for "a plea of trespass of Roger de Mortuo Mari". [Roger Mortimer] They were to "surrender to Clifford goal" before Easter and "take their trial". [order was dated Jan. 28, Nettleham, Membrane 30, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 29 Edward I] This list consisted roughly of 355 names written in the language of the day. An analysis of these names follows. [Of course, the surname JONES does not appear.]

The Welsh names took the following form: a birth name [in some cases associated with a qualifier term], then the term "ap" [meaning son of], followed by the father's name [in some cases associated with a qualifier term]. Thus, (birth name) (qualifier) ap (father's name) (qualifier). Fifty six percent of the 355 names [197] took this form. The Welsh name was extended to three generation in 19% [68/355], and to four generations in only 6% [6/355]. The Welsh name was recorded 13 times (4%) as a series of names without an "ap" appearing, i.e., "Vernack Ivor Vonal". In summary the names were recorded by the English in their particular form as follows:

1) Griffith ap Res [recorded 45% - 161/355]

2) Yevan Gogh [recorded 19 % - 68/355] (Gogh = Coch = red) thus John the redheaded

3) Yevan ap Howel ap Kenn [recorded 18% - 63/355]

4) William ap Yevan Lippa [recorded 6% - 20/355]

5) Goch Lewelyn ap Yevan Gogh [recorded 5% - 16/355]

6) Howel ap Traharn ap Res ap Griffith [recorded 1% - 6/355]

7) Lewelyn Wagham ap Lewelyn ap Seisil [recorded 2% - 8/355]

8) Vernacak Ivor Vonal [recorded 4% - 13/355]!

Remember, the percents represent the form of the name, not the particular name used as the example. An analysis of the birth names will be given. Much more to come.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Ancient Petitions A Transition Period

The records of the English nation expanded greatly after Edward I. English vernacular was the common speech, but the language of the realm was French. [William I brought this language with him, and it became the signal of prestige for this new society and culture.] Latin remained the principle language of religion and learning. When King John lost control of the Norman's French territories, the statues of French went south, and by Henry III, English words in Latin case were the norm for Norman courts of the day. Edward I brought this French-Latin-English [actually old English, Anglo-Saxon], to front page, and a transition to the English language began. It was not until 1365 that the Mayor and Alderman of London ordered court proceedings to be held in English. In 1362, the Chancellor opened Parliament in English. Thus a transition period between the French and English languages was taking place during the castle building time of Edward I. These early records have been abstracted for the surname JONES before 1327. The surname JONES does not appear! The spelling of John occurs in a variety of forms which demonstrate this transition period. They are as follows: 1) Ivens [Robert de Ivens], 2) Jeaen [Roderigo de Jeaen of Spain], 3) Jevan [Eynon ap Jevan...multiple listings], 4) John [John ap Meredith...multiple listings], and 5) Jehon, Johan, John, [all three spellings listed together]. The system of names appear multiple times indicating that the Welsh had come under the English legal system. Names such as "Rhys ap Jevan", "Griffith ap Madoc ap Jevan", "Rhys ap Griffith ap Llewellyn ap Jevan", and "Eynon ap Jevan" appear. Likewise, "Jevan ap Cadogan", "Jevan ap Hywel", "Jevan ap Thlegat", and "Jevan ap Traharen" appear. The name John appears in this context as "John ap Hopkyn", "John ap Meredith", and "John ap Rhys" . On the English side, the name John is listed as "John of Eltham, son of Edward II", "John, son of Henry IV", and "John of Gaunt". The name Elis de Joneston is the only spelling that contains JONES. [This information is abstracted from an Index of Ancient Petitions, Great Britain Public Records Office, List and Indexes. Kraus Reprint Corporation, New York, 1963. Titled: "Index of Ancient Petitions, Generally before Edward III (1327-1377)] This documentation has been published in The Jones Genealogist, Vol. V, No. 4, Nov/Dec 1993.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Number Two Jones

It took around 40 years after Matilda Jones placed her name in the English records of the day[1273], before the second JONES surname appears.[1312] Philip Jones is recorded to be at Kingshill in Stoneleigh, Warwickshire. The documentation is found in the UK Archives, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Records Office under "Gregory of Stivichall" [DR10/971-DR10/1410]. In Catalogue Reference DR10, ref. DR10/1118, Philip Jones signs as a witness to a deed recorded at Kingshill in Stoneleigh 10 August 1312. He continues to resided in Warwickshire at least through 3 March 1389/90, where a brother Richard Jones is also listed. On several occasions he is listed as "of Hull(e)". In 1336, his wife is listed as Edith, and in 1352 he is recorded as being the son of a William Jones. On the 25 January 1344/45 a daughter Isolda is listed. Wow, a whole family of JONESES! These documents were created by the Gregory family of Stivichall, Warwickshire. They are listed as "Documents of Title, Deeds and Papers, Warwickshire, Kingshill in Stoneleigh", Catalogue Ref. DR10. Jones number two is a family.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

On and On it Goes

The conquest of Wales was first started by the Anglo-Saxons (Germanic folks), then the Danes (Vikings), and then Normans (Northern French). By the time of Edward I [one of the first monarchs to speak Anglo-Saxon], the Normans had been working on this conquest for more than two centuries. The "barons" who were placed along the western border of "Norman land" took turns fighting the Welsh, and then fighting the Norman monarchy. On the other side, the Welsh would fight the Normans, or marry into the Norman families, and fight the Welsh. Back and forth it would go, on and on it would go, until fighting each other was just part of the landscape. Edward had already had his border warfare while yet a young prince under his father Henry III, and had a pretty good idea what was involved fighting with these crazy, independent, Welsh. It was not until the 12th year of his reign (1284), that he finally succeeded in making Wales a "Principality". The English would call this "Statutum Wallie", and the Welsh would call this "Statues of Rhuddlan" produced 3 March 1284. It was here that Wales, "...the newly conquered Principality..." was divided into six counties and placed under "English" jurisdiction. Thus begins the English records of its Welsh domain. It is in these records that the surname JONES begin to appear. The new English counties in Wales were grouped as follows: 1) Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth, known collectively as "North Wales" and were called "...the jurisdiction of the Justice of Snowdon..." 2) Flint 3) Carmarthen, with a later addition of Pembroke, came to be known as "South Wales". 4) Cardigan, which came to called "West Wales". Sheriffs and coroners were to be appointed for each county, and the English court system was to be applied. Of course, all of this involved record keeping, and these records became the source of analysis for the JONES surname. Chamberlains, sheriffs, ministers, receivers and other officers of these new Welsh counties formed many new records. This analysis will be presented in future posts. Much more to come!

Friday, April 1, 2011

Matilda Jones - The First Jones

Matilda was a good Norman name. The wife of William I was Matilda of Flanders (d.1083). Thus, it became a very common name used by the queens during this period. Matilda of Boulongne, wife of king Stephen (d.1152); Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I(d.1118); Matilda, a daughter of Henry I was wife of emperor Henry V (d.1167). Matilda , a daughter of Henry II, was the wife of Henry the Lion. There was even a Matilda of Huntingdon, a daughter of the earl Waltheof who became the wife of David I. Matilda of Anjou, Matilda de Braose, Matida de Port, Matilda of Wolseley, and many others took this good Norman name. As to Matilda Jones, I have not been able to independently identify this person. She is recorded to have been present in Huntingdonshire Hundred Roll of 1273, under Edward I. According to "The Hundred And The Hundred Rolls, An Outline of Local Government In Medieval England", by Helen M. Cam; Huntingdon consisted of four hundreds: 1) Hirstingstan, 2)Lectonestan, 3) Normancros, and 4) Touleslond. In 1274, the "lords" of these hundreds were the Abbot of Ramsey, The Abbot of Thorney, and Edward I [the King]. The church owned two, and the King owned two. In which hundred Matilda Jones resided is not clear. With the name Matilda, I would guess it would be "Normancros" since this would seem to take its name from the Norman fortification built to protect the strategic road from London to York [Ermine Street] as it crosses the river Ouse. William I was quick to built a castle defending this spot! My guess [at this point it is only a guess] is that Matilda Jones was a widow who had come into the possession of land through her family or husband's family. Having the surname JONES would suggest that she had married into a Welsh family from the Marches. The wool trade was an important part of this area as well as the border land of the Marches. Huntingdonshire was the first place you could access a waterway to London for transport of wool. With her Welsh husband [ap John], they would have had to come under Norman law and customs which had just started to use the Anglo-Saxon Old English. [William Marshal was Henry III's justiciar and a key player in the Marches.] It was here, Huntingsonshire, that would bridge both cultures, Welsh and Norman. Hopefully, Matilda Jones can be identified more clearly.

Monday, March 28, 2011

The First JONES Surname in English Records

The land and who owned it was the foundation of feudal society. To own land, or at least be given title to the land, required a complex social order of "might makes right" verses those who actually lived upon and occupied the land. When William I arrived to the island, the Saxons, the Danes, and the ancient Britons had been trying to settle this issue for generations. Of course, William I settled most of this discussion when he got around to documenting his new land in the Domesday accounts. From 1086 onward, those who lived upon the claimed territory had to adjust their thinking and life-style to fit into this new, French speaking, "might makes right". By the time of Henry III, the new dominions (700 baronies) had been established, and those folks who opposed this were forced to occupy the high ground. For more than 50 years, Henry III shook all the bushes and managed to hold this domain together. At his death in 1272, his son Edward was out of the country learning his military strategies. Interestingly, one of the first acts that Edward did upon his return in 1272, was to inquire into the state of his land. This was officially called his "demesnes" and considered the right and revenues of "the crown". [ A demise comes from the French language meaning the transfer of the sovereignty to a successor.] Edward wanted to know what lands were under his control [linked to the crown by knight service], and what lands were under other types of "tenures". He also wanted to check if the sheriffs, officers, and ministers of his father had been ripping off the treasury. This fairly rapid inquiry became know as "Hundred Rolls", and is the first set of English documents to record the surname JONES! A set of commissioners were sent out to survey the land. They were to go into all cities, boroughs, and market towns and inquire of all demesnes, fees, honors, escheates [land lapsing back to the crown], liberties, and things involving fees and tenements belonging to the king or to others. The record involving Huntingdonshire hundred, summarized in 1273, is reported to contain the name of Matilda Jones! She is the first individual recorded in the English records using the surname JONES. Much more to come!

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Early English Records and the Jones Surname

As described in the last post, the Domesday Survey represents the earliest records of this new kingdom under William I. The completion of this work was finished by 1086. The date of the next public records did not occur until the 31st year of the reign of Henry I. These records now titled, the Great Roll of the Exchequer, begin their date from 1130 AD. The next records were the Pipe Rolls, and have been a continual record of the English since this time.

A second group of records began during the reign of Henry II (1155-1189). A record of the knight's fees, called the Black Book of the Exchequer, was started. Another record was started being the rolls of the widows and children of the King's tenants. These rolls recorded the ages, lands, and possessions of these folks.

It was during the reign of Richard I (1189-1199) that the proceedings of the royal courts, called Courts of Justice were made. Records now called "Placita of the Curia Regis" and of "Assize".

It was not until the reign of King John (1199-1216) that an unbroken series of records have evolved which include the principle events and persons active in the government of the day. These include rolls of charters, rolls of offerings or gifts (called "oblata" rolls), rolls of letters patent, rolls of liberate. There were also close rolls, which on the back pages, had writs of summons to Parliament. Other records were fine rolls, and Norman rolls. I guess that all the trouble that John had, including the Magna Carta, needed a bunch of records!

With the reign of Henry III (1216-1272) there began extensive records called Patent Rolls. These are the earliest British records that can be accessed through the University of Iowa.[Spent five years at the University of Iowa.] They can be researched [read and searched] fairly easily using the Internet. Just type in "Patent Rolls" and seek University of Iowa. An analysis of the first index of A.D. 1216-1225, does not show a JONES surname. The name John appears with King John taking up most of the space. Only seven other folks with the name John appears. One given as "John, merchant of Piacenza", and the remaining six used with "son of". Thus by 1225, the name John was not common in the English records. The surname JONES did not appear.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

1st To Record

William the Conqueror (began to reign 1066, d. 1087, reigned 21 yrs.) divided his conquered lands into 700 baronies or great fiefs. These were the lands that did not belong to the church, and were not already reserved for himself. He bestowed these baronies on his family, particular friends, or those who had distinguished themselves in his service. These baronies were subdivided into 60,215 knights' fee. [We would consider "rent"!] No Saxons or Welsh had any of these first fiefs, and only a few Saxons were allowed (elevated enough) to obtain any of the later. This explains why most of the English genealogy books begin their lineage with the Norman conquest. An abstract of English printed peerage, by Richard Sims (1856), reports that out of 249 "nobleman", only 35 laid claim to have traced their descent beyond the Conquest. (14%) The Welsh are not even in the picture! Of course, Welsh documents were not considered to be legitimate records of the realm.

There were other records that had been kept before the Normans arrived. Monastic records head the list, and are the most ancient records known to exist. They (religious houses) needed to keep records of their secular estates. Many of these records were destroyed during the reign of Henry VIII. [Religious houses were considered abbies, priories, and cathedrals.] These monastic records have been divided into: 1) Chartularies, 2) Leiger-Books, 3) Registers, 4) Obituaries, 5) Necrologies, 6) Calendars, and 7) Chronicles. [seven, a good religious number] These are given in great detail in one of the first genealogial text titled "Sims's Manual For The Genealogist and Antiquary", by Richard Sims (of the British Museum), John Russell Smith, London, 1856. A copy I have in my hand as I write this post!

It was the Celtic church writers that were the first to record the family trees of the Welsh! [see post called Eliseg Pillar under blog on Welsh genealogy] Writing in Latin, these records began 500 years before the Normans arrived to our island. Who would have guest.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Keeping the Players Straight

For a little more than two centuries, the Welsh fought the Normans, trying to keep them from totally taking the land of their fathers. This border warfare continued along the "Marches" until the time of Edward I, beginning 1272, when he decided that enough was enough, and began a campaign to take this wild west county. It is always difficult to keep all the players straight, so the following is a time line for the Norman(English) rulers, and the Welsh rulers:

Norman Kings \ Welsh Lords

William I (the Conqueror) - 1066-1087

Rhys ap Tedwy (Tudor) d. 1093

William II (Rufus) - 1087-1100

Henry I - 1100-1135

Gruffydd ap Cynan d. 1137

Gruffydd ap Ryhys d. 1137

Stephen - 1135-1154

Henry II - 1154-1189

Madoc ap Maredydd d. 1160

Owain Gwynedd d. 1170

Richard I - 1189-1199

Rhys ap Gruffydd (Lord Rhys) d.1197

John - 1199-1216

Henry III - 1216-1272

Llewelyn ap Iorwerth (the Great) d. 1240

Edward I - 1272-1307

Llewelyn ap Gruffydd d. 1282

The Normans were actually introduced to the Welsh around 1055 when Edward the Confessor used their assistance in fighting the Welsh under Gruffydd ap Llewelyn. Excellent references for this period of history are:

"England Under The Norman and Angevin Kings 1075 - 1225", by Robert Bartlett, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2000.

"The Feudal Transformation 900 - 1200" , by Jean-Pierre Poly and Eric Bournazel, Holmes & Meier, London, 1991.

"The Normans", by Christopher Gravett & David Nicolle, Osprey Publishing, Ltd, Oxford, 2006.

"The Normans and the Norman Conquest", by Allen Brown, The Boydell Press, Suffolk, 1968.

"1066 The Year of The Conquest", by David Howarth, Dorset Press, a division of The Viking Press, 1978.

"The Bayeux Tapestry", by Simone Bertrand, ouest france, Rennes, 1978.

Isn't amazing that any of our JONES family survived!

Saturday, March 5, 2011

A Precarious Position

We left our Welsh ancestors in a very precarious position. The Norman invasion and conquest of England was at hand, and by 1086, the military conquest of Wales was underway. However, several key events took place which changed the future timing of the complete conquest of Wales and the gradual introduction of the JONES surname.

First, William I died in 1087 leaving his son William II to continue his plan of Welsh conquest. However, with any change in power, there is a change in control and administration. This change in leadership allowed at least a "break" in the intensity of the military invasion.

Second, the Norman lords and barons were becoming increasingly independent, and the death of William I allowed for a more lax sense of loyalties. Also, these same "lords" were beginning to want more independence and control of their own lands. Thus, the Normans starting fighting one another.

Third, the Welsh princes began to recognize that the Norman invasion was threatening to become a permanent occupation of Welsh territories. They realized that actions needed to be taken to maintain their remaining lands and to recover occupied lands.

It is important to recognize that the Welsh responses to the Norman invasion were different within the geographic regions of Wales. The multiple family groups tried to figure out how to face this new challenge to the best of their advantage.

The northern most sections of Wales responded to the Norman invasion by intense and fierce rebellion for the next 200 years. Influenced by the heritage of the oldest son of Rhodi Mawr (Royal Tribe I), this geopolitical region maintained resistance to Norman conquest until 1282 A.D. The last direct heir, Llwewllyn ap Griffith, Prince of North Wales, was killed at the battle of Builth on the Wye.

The border areas of Wales were bound by a stronger Roman tradition, laws, roads, and commercial ties with the Anglo-Saxons. Already more "Anglicized" [the Welsh term was Sais], this geopolitical region tended to respond to the Norman invasion by offering their daughter in marriage to the Norman lords. This strategy helped them to maintain their lands, resources and trade, while keeping Welsh lands identified with ancient Welsh traditions. However, this strategy also gave lands to the Normans as the Welsh-Norman families evolved under this new breed of "land barons". It was in this geopolitical region that the most powerful Norman "lords" evolved. This area became known as the "March" and the nobles were know as the "Lords of the March". [Lords of the Border] Their strength was partly due to the Welsh support obtained by marriage. This strategy often produced treaties which could be used by the Welsh princes to use the Norman military to their advantage. By treaties, the Welsh princes agreed to aide the Normans in their battles. In return, the Welsh families obtained recognition of their royal and legal claims under Norman law, while becoming essentially vassals to the Norman lords. It was in this context that the JONES surname evolves.